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Papers addressing both the inquisitorial and the adversarial legal systems will be welcome as well as papers based on concrete laws of a European or Latin-American country. Neither the Editors nor the Publishers will accept responsibility for the views or statements expressed by the authors.

The journal is aimed at researchers, academics and professionals in Psychology, Law, Social Work, Forensic Sciences, Educators and, in general, people related with Social Sciences and the Law. The Impact Factor measures the average of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years.

SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total of citations in a subject field. The aim of this study was to characterize young dating violent offenders DVO , and to compare them to the general population and to young offenders with violent crimes directed against other victims.

We have used data from the Development of Aggressive Antisocial Behaviour Study, in all young men, 18 to 25 years, convicted of violent crimes and imprisoned in the Western Region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Services. We found that young DVO offenders differed from the general population in all investigated areas; however, the group did not differ in comparisons to other young violent offenders.

Our highlight the antisocial aspects of dating violent crime being rooted in aggressive antisocial behaviour, lacking s of any specific offender type characteristics, thus questioning the validity of crime specific treatment programs in prison for young offenders of dating violence.. Violence, regrettably, is a matter also concerning the young. It is regularly discussed as a prevalent and serious social and health problem Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Thus, identifying offender characteristics in dating violence is considered an urgent quest. Overall, the span of investigated ages in studies of dating violence varies from 12 years to 25 years.

Dating violence victimization rates found in the United States, where incidences are reported for the last 12 months, have been found ranging from 1. Despite any exact estimates of the prevalence of dating violence, contributing also to the severity of the problem is the fact that it afflicts young people. As was suggested in the earliest work in the field Makepeace, , this fact entails certain consequences: young age means that the process of socialization is ongoing and, in cases where the pattern of abuse is established already in adolescence, the severity of adult intimate partner violence is often greater.

This is found to be true for both perpetration and victimization. Smith, White, and Holland have presented from a longitudinal study of women in university, showing an increased risk of revictimization. Among the young women who had experienced prior physical abuse in a romantic relationship in adolescence, the relative risk for revictimization was 2. The cycle of violence, or intergenerational violence, is rooted in the social learning theory and proposes that growing up being witness or subjected to violent behaviour teaches the child acceptance for violent behaviour Bandura, In the vicinity of the question of aetiology, you find the search of potential risk factors or correlates.

However, although risk factors do not carry any one-directed argument of causality, they bring important knowledge of occurrence of dating violence. In a review of longitudinal studies, Vagi et al. The review concluded that effective prevention programs ought to focus on youths who had experienced maltreatment and other adverse childhood events, had particular mental health problems, behaved aggressively and had aggressive attitudes, used substances, and were in hostile or unhealthy relationships.

Capaldi and Owen investigated associations between physical aggression, injury, and fear in an at-risk community sample, and showed that physical aggression among partners was associated to antisocial behaviour. These facts indicate that both offenders and victims of dating violence display social vulnerability, potentially in need of extra societal support, and attention. However, studies aiming at exploring risk and protective factors of dating violence have almost exclusively used samples derived from high school, college, or community populations. The age group of years is of particular interest since it is the range where, in most Western cultures, the transition into adulthood is made.

We consider an examination of imprisoned dating violent offenders of this age group to be a relevant task partly because it has not been done before, partly because an assumption that the offenders of the most severe violence towards dating partners are the ones convicted to prison. Knowledge regarding imprisoned dating violent offenders could thus add to the knowledge of what characterizes individuals who are at the high end of the spectrum of dating violence. Based on research and theory of aetiology, potentially important areas of investigation could be: occurrence of adverse childhood experiences e.

A likewise important area to investigate would be the importance of type of offender victim relationship. Offender victim relationship is the denominator for the entire discourse of both dating violence and intimate partner violence IPV. It has also been found that lethal violence i. In spite of several findings of similarities between adult partner violent offenders and violent offenders of other crimes, there have not been any comparisons of offender characteristics among young violent offenders based on victim relationship as the distinguishing factor e.

The aim of the present study was 1 to provide a characterization regarding psychosocial background factors of imprisoned young Swedish male offenders convicted of dating violent crimes towards a partner in comparison to the general Swedish population, and 2 to compare them to imprisoned offender groups convicted of violent crimes with other victim-offender relationships, that is, offenders with a known victim, and offenders with an unknown victim, regarding i clinical features and personality traits and ii aggressive antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits.

Its primary aim was to study the prevalence of developmental and clinical disorders in a nationally representative cohort of young adult male violent offenders in Swedish prisons. In all, male inmates aged 18 to 25 and convicted of violent crimes, including hands-on sexual crimes, serving time in these prisons were recruited for the study. Other inclusion criteria were language skills, speaking and understanding Swedish sufficiently well to participate in clinical assessments, and duration of stay, that is, at least four weeks in order for the assessments to be planned and executed.

There were no differences between those who consented and those who declined participation regarding median age, convictions, or country of origin. In five cases information concerning relation to victim was missing or not known. Moreover, complete data collection was not possible for all participants, leading to some variations in the of subjects for each measure see Wallinius et al. This division is pragmatic and in line with a common praxis of classification of offenders in Swedish prisons.

For example, when deciding appropriate program for the offender in question, committing a violent crime towards a partner is the necessary prerequisite to take part in programs especially deed to understand and change such behaviours. The dating violent offender group DVO consisted of 42 offenders convicted of a violent crime towards a partner always a female , including seven who had committed violent sexual offences towards their partner.

The two other groups were constituted depending on whether the offenders had committed a violent crime towards an unknown victim s unknown victim offender, UVO or if they had prior knowledge of their victim s , known victim offender, KVO. The UVO group consisted of offenders, of which 12 had female victims, 97 had male victims, and in 26 cases there were both male and female victims.

The KVO group consisted of 85 offenders, of which 62 had male victims, 17 had female victims, and 6 had both male and female victims. The same criteria were applicable for these groups as for the DVO group: they might have been convicted of lesser criminal offences as well, such as the above mentioned; however, the main offence was a violent crime directed towards at least one victim, known or unknown. Comparisons to the general Swedish population regarding psychosocial background factors were made through from a study based on the total Swedish population born in to by the Centre for Health Equity Studies CHESS.

Regarding academic achievements, were compared to data from The Swedish National Agency for Education The study population of dating violent offenders was born between and , reaching the age of graduation for secondary school between the years and The year of comparison between the study population and the general Swedish population was chosen to be the year in the middle of this time span, that is, the graduation of secondary school for the year of This is a site that presents economic information collected from public Swedish and international statistic sources, primarily from Statistics Sweden, OECD, and Eurostat.

A broad battery of instruments, both expert-rated by d psychologists and self-rated, was used in the DAABS project, of which the following domains were covered:. The DAABS structured interview covered a broad range of psychosocial background factors, ranging from social circumstances during childhood to criminality.

Susceptibility factors, such as having been in need of special support or care, were also included, as well as if offenders had been taken into care at a youth institution; if they had received psychiatric care during childhood or adolescence; and, finally, whether or not they were ly convicted any criminality , and whether or not they had had a full-time job prior to being incarcerated for the current crime.

The CTQ-SF is a self-report questionnaire comprising 28 questions, measuring five clinical subscales: Emotional Abuse verbal abuse or verbal violations directed towards , in order to violate or humiliate its self-esteem , Physical Abuse physical attacks from adults towards the child, aiming to hurt , Sexual Abuse sexual contact or behaviour between adult and child , Emotional Neglect omission to provide to basic emotional and psychological needs of , and Physical Neglect omission to provide to basic physiological needs of , such as providing food, clothes, etc.

Each subscale consists of five questions, rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from never true to very often true. Axis II disorders are presented in clusters: A consisting of paranoid, schizoid, or schizotypal personality disorder ; B antisocial, narcissistic, histrionic, or borderline personality disorder ; and C avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. AQ-RSV is a item questionnaire in which the individual assesses his expression of aggressiveness as Physical Aggression nine items , Verbal Aggression five items , Anger seven items , and Hostility eight items.

Each item is answered on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 least characteristic to 4 most characteristic. PCL-R is a item rating scale, where each item is scored on a three-point scale from 0 does not apply to 1 may apply or in some respects applies to 2 does apply. Items are summed up into a total PCL-R score range 0 to 40 , and four facet scores. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at Lund University as a multicentre study, thereby involving several sites or authorities.

As a project within the correctional system it also had to follow the research guidelines of the Swedish Prison and Probation Services. All participants received both oral and written information about the study, stressing that participation was voluntarily and that it in no way would affect their penalty. Everyone that accepted participation in the study had to give a written informed consent before participating in the actual assessments.

These procedures were fully in line with the Swedish legal requirements for this kind of research. The of offenders varies due to missing data in some of the studied variables. In , valid percentages are used. In order to investigate group differences of categorical variables, Fischer's exact test was used throughout all analyses, and the effect size was calculated with Cramer's V. Due to the large differences in group size, statistics were checked in order to determine the distribution of normality with regard to continuous data. Those included checking for skewness and kurtosis, and possible outliers were recognized by conducting box plots.

Group differences regarding continuous data were investigated by the use of one way analysis of variance ANOVA , followed by a post hoc Bonferroni test to establish ificant group differences. In addition, one sample non-parametric test i. Cramer's V was interpreted according to the following recommendation:. Testing the distributions found in the DVO group against the values of the general population showed that the former were ificantly different from the latter.

Comparisons between the DVO group and the Swedish general population showed that the two groups were quite similar regarding primary school achievement at 16 years of age. As for graduation from secondary school and establishment in the job-market, the differences between the groups grew remarkably Table 2. The distribution found in the DVO group did, however, ificantly differ from the values of the general population for all studied variables.

Swedish National Agency for Education, class of ;. Regarding measures of aggressive antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits i. The aim of the study was to provide a characterization of the young offender convicted of dating violence, and to compare him to young offenders with violent crimes directed against other victims and with the general population.

We found that the young DVO offender differed from the general population in all investigated areas, however, the group did not differ in any comparison to other young violent offenders, regardless of their relationship to the victim. Compared to the Swedish general population, the group showed a troublesome psychosocial background. The prognosis for our offenders of dating violence is far from promising when such as these are taken into consideration, since, for example, a majority of them have not completed secondary school and about half of them have parents with alcohol abuse problems.

They really appeared as ificantly exposed in comparison to what was seen for the general population. Moreover, our show that the levels of experienced neglect and abuse in childhood were increased in the group of dating violent offenders, compared to a general population of young male university students. Describing this group clinically, the main problems were found in the area of mood and anxiety disorders, areas in which more than half of the group members were affected, and in the form of personality disorders characterized by antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits.

All in all, a plausible interpretation of the extensive level of mental health problems is that they would lead to severe problems for the general ability of the DVO offenders to cope with the problems of daily life. In comparison to the other two offender groups, there were not any differences in the investigated areas.

It thus seems as a majority of young male violent offenders, regardless of relation to their victim, are more alike than different. Our findings suggest that dating violence perpetrated by young male offenders is part of male violent criminal behaviour at large, and thus theoretically is related to aggressive antisocial behaviour in general.

This might carry potential meaning for both theory and treatment. Regarding theoretical developments of adult intimate partner violence IPV , it has been found that men that perpetrate IPV form a heterogenic group: the predominantly used typology of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart recognizes three subtypes of offenders subsumed according to the dimensions generality of violence, severity of violence, and psychopathology.

The Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart classification rendered three groups: family only, generally violent-antisocial, and dysphoric-borderline. According to the empirical validation studies of the Holtzworth Munroe and Stuart typology, the general-violent antisocial subset is considered to perpetrate the most severe forms of violence towards the partner see also Holtzworth-Munroe, In this study, we found that the young dating violence offenders in prison resemble this group, converging in the same propensity of criminal activity, yet separated by the age parameter.

Through the comparison, it was found that regarding sociodemographic variables, criminal characteristics, and attitudes favouring IPV there were no differences between the groups. The difference was that the common offender group had a higher prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and the IPV group had a higher prevalence of borderline personality disorder.

The conclusion was thus made that in order to reduce levels of reoffending, an intervention needs to target the criminogenic needs of the individual, i. Also, the higher the rate of offences, the more the risk of criminal violence and of IPV — being a high-risk offender also increased the risk of IPV perpetration.

Similar were shown by Richards, Jennings, Tomsich, and Gover in a study of men convicted of IPV and, to judge from our data, the same pattern seems to be applicable to young male offenders of dating violence. Limitations are an integral part of research and this study is no exception from this rule, why there are several that need to be taken into consideration. One main limitation concerns the fact that our data do not contain any information regarding the seriousness or level of commitment of the relationship between the offender and the victimized partner. Another main limitation consists of the fact that data about psychosocial background factors were collected retrospectively.

This may have led to insufficient presentations of childhood adversities and psychopathologies due to recall bias. Related to the matter of using historical data, there is the matter that the division into mutually exclusive groups is done with only the current conviction as dividing factor, simply because we did not have any information about victim relation for those participants that had been convicted of violent criminality. However, if such data had shown a historical overlap between the groups regarding victim relations, this would further support our finding that the perpetration of dating violence is an expression of a general tendency to act with aggressive antisocial behaviours.

Another limitation consists of some missing data for some of the used measures, and since it has not been possible to conduct a non-response analysis we cannot determine to what extent this is systematically biasing the . However, the study group is representative of young Swedish men in prison.

Overall, the statistically ificant of differences between groups were of small to moderate effect sizes. In addition, type 1 error is probable because of the great differences in size between the three offender groups in some measures. Thus, we might have been unable to detect true differences between the groups due to small group size in several of our comparisons. Generalizations from these data should therefore be carried out with cautiousness and restricted to similar samples. Young male offenders of dating violence are overall more similar than different from other young male violent offenders, especially with regard to mental health, aggressive antisocial behaviours, and psychopathic traits.

They are, on the other hand, different from the general population with regard to psychosocial circumstances during the childhood and adolescent years as well as regarding educational achievements and establishment in the job-market.

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